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主页 > 高盛高华财经词典 ─ 汉英对照 ─ D

高盛高华财经词典 ─ 汉英对照

D

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中文词句
English Terms
English Definitions
大宗交易 Block Trade The sale or purchase of a large quantity of securities.
呆账准备金 Allowance For Doubtful Accounts An estimation made by companies and documented on their balance sheet for receivables that might go uncollected.
代理人 Agent An organization, such as a bank or trust company, that takes responsibility for the fiscal duties of an unrelated party.
代理委托书 Proxy A formal document signed by a shareholder to authorize another shareholder, or commonly the company's management, to vote the holder's shares at the annual meeting.
代理问题 Agency Problem When conflicts of interest rise between creditors, shareholders, and management, because of differing goals.
贷款 Loan When a lender gives money or property to a borrower, and the borrower agrees to return the property or repay the borrowed money along with interest, at a predetermined date in the future.
贷款损失准备金 Loan Loss Provision An expense set aside as an allowance for bad loans (customer defaults, or terms of a loan have to be renegotiated, etc).
贷款银团 Loan Syndication The process of involving numerous different lenders in providing various portions of a loan.
贷款与价值比率 Loan to Value Ratio A lending risk ratio calculated by dividing the total amount for the mortgage or loan by the appraised value of the property.
带领权 Drag Along Rights A right that enables a majority shareholder to force a minority shareholder to join in the sale of a company. The majority owner doing the dragging must give the minority share holder the same price, terms, and conditions as any other seller.
担保人 Guarantor A person that guarantees to pay for someone else's debt if they default on their loan obligation.
单纯期权 Vanilla Option An normal option with no special or unusual features.
单位数量,整份股 Board Lot A term used when describing a standard number of shares in trading stocks, usually 100.
单位信托 Unit Trust (UT) An un-incorporated mutual fund structure that allows funds to hold assets and pass through profits to the individual owners, rather than reinvest profits back into the fund.
单一业务 Pure Play A company devoted to one line of business, or a company whose stock price is highly correlated with the fortunes of a specific investing theme or strategy.
到价 At the Money An option is at-the-money if the strike price of the option equals the market price of the underlying security.
到价 In the Money For a call option, in-the-money is when the option's strike price is below the market price of the underlying stock. For a put option, in-the-money is when the strike price is above the market price of the underlying stock.
到期日 Expiration Date The day on which an options or futures contract is no longer valid and, therefore, ceases to exist.
到期日期 Maturity Date The date on which a bond's principal or other liability investment is repaid to the investor and interest payments stop.
到期收益率 YTM The rate of return anticipated on a bond if it is held until the maturity date. YTM is considered a long term bond yield expressed as an annual rate.
The calculation takes into account the current market price, par value, coupon interest rate, and time to maturity. It is also assumed that all coupons are reinvested at the same rate. Sometimes this is referred to as a bond's "yield" for short.
到期收益率 Yield To Maturity (YTM) The rate of return anticipated on a bond if it is held until the maturity date. YTM is considered a long term bond yield expressed as an annual rate.
The calculation takes into account the current market price, par value, coupon interest rate, and time to maturity. It is also assumed that all coupons are reinvested at the same rate. Sometimes this is referred to as a bond's "yield" for short.
道琼斯工业平均指数 DJIA The Dow Jones Industrial Average is a price-weighted average of 30 significant stocks traded on the New York Stock Exchange and the Nasdaq. The DJIA was invented by Charles Dow back in 1896.
道琼斯工业平均指数 Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) The Dow Jones Industrial Average is a price-weighted average of 30 significant stocks traded on the New York Stock Exchange and the Nasdaq. The DJIA was invented by Charles Dow back in 1896.
道琼斯公用事业平均指数 DJUA The Dow Jones Utility Average is a price-weighted average of 15 utility stocks traded in the United States. The DJUA was started back in 1929.
道琼斯公用事业平均指数 Dow Jones Utility Average (DJUA) The Dow Jones Utility Average is a price-weighted average of 15 utility stocks traded in the United States. The DJUA was started back in 1929.
道琼斯交通平均指数 DJTA The Dow Jones Transportation Average is a price-weighted average of 20 transportation stocks traded in the United States. The average was started back in 1884.
道琼斯交通平均指数 Dow Jones Transportation Average (DJTA) The Dow Jones Transportation Average is a price-weighted average of 20 transportation stocks traded in the United States. The average was started back in 1884.
道氏理论 Dow Theory A theory which says the market is in an upward trend if one of its averages (industrial or transportation) advances above a previous important high, it is accompanied or followed by a similar advance in the other.
等值 Par
  1. The face value of a bond. Generally $1,000 for corporate issues, with higher denominations such as $10,000 for many government issues.
  2. A dollar amount assigned to a security when first issued.
等值债券 Parity Bond Two or more bond issues with equal rights to bond payments and pledged revenues.
低价交易 Downtick A transaction on an exchange occurring at a price below the previous transaction.
低价交易量 Downtick Volume The share volume of a security that trades at a price lower than its previous price.
低负债资产负债表 Clean Balance Sheet Referring to a company whose balance sheet has very little or no debt.
低市值公司 Small-Cap Refers to stocks with a relatively small market capitalization. The definition of small-cap can vary among brokerages, but generally a company between $300 million to $2 billion in market cap is considered a small cap.
抵押品 Collateral Properties or assets that are offered to secure a loan or other credit. Collateral becomes subject to seizure on default.
地产让与证书 Conveyance A written instrument, such as a deed or lease, that transfers some ownership interest in real property from one person to another.
地区股票交易所 Regional Stock Exchange Any exchange that resides beyond the country's main financial center.
递延利息债券 Deferred Interest Bond A debt instrument that pays no interest until a date specified in the future.
递延年金 Deferred Annuity An annuity contract that delays payments of income, installments, or a lump sum until the investor elects to receive them.
递延收入 Deferred Revenue A liability account used for deposits and other cash receipts prior to the completion of the sale.
递延所得税 Deferred Income Tax A liability that results from income already earned and recognized for accounting purposes, but not for tax purposes, that is recorded on the balance sheet.
递延帐户 Deferred Account An account that postpones tax liabilities until a later date. Deferred accounts are usually retirement accounts.
第三方保管契约 Escrow A financial instrument held by a third party on behalf of others until their written or oral instructions or obligations have been fulfilled.
第三方保管协议 Escrow Agreement A certificate provided by an approved bank that guarantees the indicated securities are deposited at that particular bank.
电子商贸 Ecommerce When a person or business uses the Internet as part of their business model.
掉期 Swap Traditionally, the exchange of one security for another to change the maturity (bonds), quality of issues (stocks or bonds), or because investment objectives have changed. Recently, swaps have grown to include currency swaps and interest rates swaps.
掉期利率 Swap Rate The rate of the fixed portion of a swap as determined by its particular market. This is the rate at which the swap will occur for one of the parties entering into the agreement.
掉期息差 Swap Spread
  1. The difference between the negotiated and fixed rate of a swap. The spread is determined by characteristics of market supply and creditor worthiness.
  2. The difference between the swap rate and the lending rate offered through other investment vehicles with comparable characteristics.
顶尖业务 Crown Jewels The most valuable unit of a corporation because of profitability, asset value, future prospects, etc.
订单积压 Backlog The total value of sales orders waiting to be fulfilled.
定额投资 Closed-End Investment When an investment company issues a fixed number of shares in an actively managed portfolio of securities. The shares are traded in the market just like common stock.
定价能力 Pricing Power An economic term referring to the effect that a change in a firm's product price has on the quantity demanded of that product. Pricing power ties in with the "Price Elasticity of Demand."
定量分析 Quantitative Analysis A security analysis that uses financial information derived from company annual reports and income statements to evaluate an investment decision.
定期存款 Time Deposit A savings account or CD held for a fixed-term with the understanding that the depositor can only withdraw by giving written notice.
定性分析 Qualitative Analysis Analysis that uses subjective judgment in evaluating securities based on non-financial information such as management expertise, cyclicality of industry, strength of research and development, and labor relations.
董事会 Board Of Directors Individuals elected by stockholders to establish corporate management policies. A board of directors makes decisions on major company issues and controls when dividends will be paid to stockholders.
独立基金 Segregated Fund A type of annuity that is similar to a mutual fund. Segregated Funds are an insurance product and are only offered by insurance companies.
独立审计师 Independent Auditor An external auditor with a certified public accounting designation that qualifies him or her to provide an auditor's report.
独资经营 Sole Proprietorship A business organization that is unincorporated and has only one owner.
杜邦分析 Du Pont Analysis A method of performance measurement that was started by the DuPont Corporation in the 1920s, and has been used by them ever since. With this method, assets are measured at their gross book value rather than at net book value in order to produce a higher ROI.
杜邦特性理论 Du Pont Identity An expression breaking down return on equity (ROE) into three parts: profit margin, total asset turnover, and financial leverage.
The Du Pont identity tells us that ROE is affected by 3 things:
  1. Operating efficiency (as measured by profit margin)
  2. Asset use efficiency (as measured by total asset turnover)
  3. Financial leverage (as measured by the equity multiplier)
短期国库券 Treasury Bill A U.S. Government debt security with a maturity that is less than one year. Treasury bills are issued through a competitive bidding process at a discount from par. This means they do not pay fixed interest payments like most bonds do.
短期同业拆借利率,通知贷款利率 Call Loan Rate The short term interest rate charged on a secured call loan, usually in margin accounts.
短期同业拆借,通知贷款 Call Loan A loan provided to a brokerage firm and used to finance margin accounts. The interest rate on a call loan is calculated daily. The resulting interest rate is referred to as the call loan rate.
对冲 Hedge Making an investment to reduce the risk of adverse price movements in an asset. Normally, a hedge consists of protecting a position in a related security.
对冲比率 Hedge Ratio
  1. A ratio comparing the amount you are hedging with the size of the position being hedged against.
  2. A ratio comparing the value of futures contracts purchased or sold versus the value of the cash commodity being hedged against.
对冲基金 Hedge Fund An aggressively managed portfolio taking positions on safe and speculative opportunities. Most hedge funds are limited to a maximum of 100 investors. For the most part, hedge funds are unregulated because it is assumed the people investing in these are very sophisticated and wealthy.
多元化 Diversification A risk management technique that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio. It is designed to minimize the impact of any one security on overall portfolio performance.
多元化普通股资金 Diversified Common Stock Fund A mutual fund that invests its assets in a wide range of common stocks. The fund's objectives can be growth, income, or a combination of both.
多数股东 Majority Shareholder A person or conglomerate who owns more than 50% of the outstanding shares for a corporation.


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