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主页 > 高盛高华财经词典 ─ 汉英对照 ─ S

高盛高华财经词典 ─ 汉英对照

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中文词句
English Terms
English Definitions
鲨变监察者 Shark Watcher A firm specializing in the early detection of takeovers. The firm's primary business is usually the solicitation of proxies for client corporations.
瞻养比率 Dependency Ratio A ratio indicating the number of dependents (aged 0-14 and over the age of 65) to the total population (aged 15-64). The total dependency ratio is calculated by the (number of dependents/population aged 15-64) x 100%.
瞻养比率 Total Dependency Ratio A ratio indicating the number of dependents (aged 0-14 and over the age of 65) to the total population (aged 15-64). The total dependency ratio is calculated by the (number of dependents/population aged 15-64) x 100%.
商业对商业(B2B) Business to Business (B2B) Business conducted between companies, rather than between a company and individual consumers.
商业 Commercial A term used to refer to any party or organization involved in producing, transporting, or merchandising a commodity.
商业银行 Commercial Bank A financial institution that provides services such as a accepting deposits and giving business loans.
商业抵押作担保的证券  Commercial Mortgage Backed Security (CMBS) Similar to a Mortgage Backed Security, but secured by loans with commercial instead of residential property.
商业票据 Commercial Paper An unsecured, short-term loan issued by a corporation, typically for financing accounts receivable and inventories. It is usually issued at a discount reflecting prevailing market interest rates.
商品 Commodity Any bulk good traded on an exchange or in the cash market.
商品期货交易委员会 Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) A U.S. federal agency established by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974. It ensures the open and efficient operation of the futures markets. There are five futures markets commissioners who are appointed by the president (subject to Senate approval).
商誉 Goodwill The excess of the purchase price over the fair market value of an asset. Accountants record this as a "write off" in the financial report.
商人银行 Merchant Bank A bank which deals mostly in (but is not limited to) international finance, long term loans to companies, and underwriting. Merchant banks do not provide normal banking services to the general public.
上市证券 Listed Security Securities that have been accepted for trading purposes by a recognized and regulated exchange.
上市公司 Public Company A company that has issued securities through an offering which are now traded on the open market.
少数权益 Minority Interest A significant, but non-controlling, outside ownership interest in a company/subsidiary that is consolidated with the parent for financial reporting purposes
涉漏消息 Leakage A release of information to certain people before the official public announcement.
申报不足 Under Reporting An illegal practice where a person under states their taxable income.
审计 Audit An unbiased examination and evaluation of the financial statements of an organization. It can be done internally (by employees of the organization) or externally (by an outside firm).
审计师报告 Auditor's Report Recorded in the annual report, it tests to see that corporation's financial statements comply with GAAP.
升值 Appreciation The increase in value of an asset.
生产毛利率 GPM The difference between the cost of a raw commodity and the income it generates once sold as a finished product.
生产毛利率 Gross Processing Margin (GPM) The difference between the cost of a raw commodity and the income it generates once sold as a finished product.
生产价格指数 Producer Price Index (PPI) A family of indexes that measures the average change over time in selling prices received by domestic producers of goods and services. PPIs measure price change from the perspective of the seller.
生产力 Productivity A measure of the amount of output per unit of input.
石油输出国组织、欧佩克 OPEC An intergovernmental organization dedicated to the stability and prosperity of the petroleum market. OPEC membership is open to any country that is a substantial exporter of oil and shares the ideals of the organization.
石油输出国组织、欧佩克 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) An intergovernmental organization dedicated to the stability and prosperity of the petroleum market. OPEC membership is open to any country that is a substantial exporter of oil and shares the ideals of the organization.
时间加权回报率 Time-Weighted Rate of Return A measure of the compound rate of growth in a portfolio. Because this method eliminates the distorting effects created by inflows of new money, it is used to compare the returns of investment managers.
When calculating, the effect of varying cash inflows is eliminated by assuming a single investment at the beginning of a period and measuring the growth or loss of market value to the end of that period.
实际回报 Actual Return The actual gain or loss of an investor. This can be expressed in the following formula: expected return (ex-ante) plus the effect of firm-specific and economy-wide news.
实付开支 Out of Pocket Expenses An expense that an individual incurs for either business or personal usage. These expenses are tax deductible.
实物支付债券 Payment in Kind Bond (PIK) A type of bond that pays interest in additional bonds, as opposed to cash payouts.
实际资产 Real Asset Physical or identifiable assets such as gold, land, equipment, patents, etc. They are the opposite of a financial asset.
实际利率 Real Interest Rate The excess of the interest rate over the inflation rate. The real rate of interest is approximately calculated by taking the nominal interest rate and subtracting inflation.
实际回报率 Real Rate of Return The annual percentage return realized on an investment adjusted for changes in the price level due to inflation or deflation.
实现损失 Realized Loss A loss recognized when assets are sold for a price lower than the original purchase price
实现利润 Realized Profit A gain realized upon liquidation of assets that results from receiving a price higher than the original purchase price.
18定律 Rule of 18 A rule whereby the sum of the inflation rate and the P/E ratio of the Dow Jones Industrial Average is an indicator of the direction of the stock market. If the total is above 18, stocks are supposed to decrease. If the total is under 18, then the stock market is expected to increase.
使用权税、专利权税 Royalty A payment to an owner for the use of property, especially patents, copyrighted works, franchises, or natural resources.
世界贸易组织 WTO An international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably, and freely as possible.
世界贸易组织 World Trade Organization (WTO) An international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably, and freely as possible.
市场泡沫 Bubble A speculative market or stock in which the values rise very rapidly and then fall sharply.
市场 Market
  1. Typically refers to the equity market where stocks are traded, but can also refer to the bond, options, or commodity market.
  2. People with the desire and ability to buy a specific product.
市场套利 Market Arbitrage Purchasing and selling the same security at the same time in different markets to take advantage of a price difference between the two separate markets.
市价订单 Market Order An order to buy or sell a stock immediately at the best available current price. A market order guarantees execution.
市场风险 Market Risk The day to day potential for an investor to experience losses from fluctuations in securities prices.
市场风险溢价 Market Risk Premium The difference between the expected return on a market portfolio and the risk-free rate.
市场细分 Market Segmentation A marketing term describing the aggregating of prospective buyers into groups (segments) that have common needs and will respond similarly to a marketing action
市场情绪 Market Sentiment The feeling or tone of a market. It is shown by the activity and price movement of the securities.
市场价值 Market Value
  1. The current quoted price at which investors buy or sell a share of common stock or a bond at a given time.
  2. Sometimes referred to as total market value, the market capitalization plus the market value of debt.
市场增值 Market Value Added (MVA) The difference between the market value of a company (both equity and debt) and the capital contributed by investors.
市政债券 Municipal Bond A debt security issued by a state, municipality, or county, in order to finance its capital expenditures. Municipal bonds are exempt from federal taxes and from most state and local taxes, especially if you live in the state the bond is issued.
市政债券基金 Municipal Bond Fund A mutual fund that invests in municipal bonds, operating either as an investment trust or as an open-end fund.
市政可转换证券 Municipal Convertible A zero-coupon municipal bond that can be converted into an interest-bearing bond under certain circumstances.
市盈率 P/E Ratio valuation ratio of a company's current share price compared to its per-share earnings.
Calculated as:
Market Value per Share
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Earnings per Share (EPS)

EPS is usually from the last four quarters (trailing P/E), but sometimes can be taken from the estimates of earnings expected in the next four quarters (projected or forward P/E). A third variation is the sum of the last two actual quarters and the estimates of the next two quarters. '
市盈率与增长比率 PEG Ratio A ratio used to determine a stock's value while taking into account earnings growth. The calculation is as follows:
Price/Earnings Ratio
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Annual EPS Growth
市盈率 Price-Earnings Ratio valuation ratio of a company's current share price compared to its per-share earnings.
Calculated as:
Market Value per Share
‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾
Earnings per Share (EPS)

EPS is usually from the last four quarters (trailing P/E), but sometimes can be taken from the estimates of earnings expected in the next four quarters (projected or forward P/E). A third variation is the sum of the last two actual quarters and the estimates of the next two quarters. '
市盈率与增长比率 PEG Ratio A ratio used to determine a stock's value while taking into account earnings growth. The calculation is as follows:
Price/Earnings Ratio
‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾
Annual EPS Growth
市盈率与增长及股息比率 PEGY Ratio A variation of the PEG ratio where a stock's P/E ratio is divided by its projected earnings growth rate and dividend yield.
收购 Acquisition When one company purchases a majority interest in the acquired.
收购溢价 Acquisition Premium The difference between the actual cost for acquiring a target firm versus the estimate made of its value before the acquisition.
收盘后交易 After Hours Trading Trading after regular trading hours on the major exchanges.
收盘铃后 After The Bell After the close of the stock market.
收支平衡点 Break Even Point (BEP) The point at which gains equal losses.
Or, the market price that a stock must reach for option buyers to avoid a loss if they exercise. For a call, it is the strike price plus the premium paid. For a put, it is the strike price minus the premium paid.
收购 Buyout The purchase of a company or a controlling interest of a corporation's shares. A leveraged buyout is accomplished with borrowed money or by issuing more stock.
收盘、交易结束 Closing
  1. The end of a trading session. The closing price is what's quoted in the newspaper.
  2. The final procedure in a home sale, documents are signed and recorded. This is the time when the property ownership is transferred.
收盘铃 Closing Bell A bell that rings to signify the end of a trading session.
收益 Gain An increase in the value of an asset or property. The gain is measured as the amount of capital from the sale of a good realized in excess of the original purchase price.
收入 Income Money received by a person or organization because of effort (work) or from return on investments.
收益基金 Income Fund A mutual fund that seeks to provide stable current income by investing in securities that pay interest or dividends.
收益股票 Income Stock Stocks with a history of regular dividend payments that contribute to the largest portion of the stock's overall return.
收入回报率 Return On Revenue (ROR) A measure of a corporation's profitability, calculated as net income divided by revenue.
Net Income
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Revenue
收购 Takeover When an acquiring company makes a bid for an acquiree. If the target company is publicly traded, the acquiring company will make an offer for the outstanding shares.
收益率 Yield
  1. A measure of the income generated by a bond, it is calculated as the amount of interest paid on a bond divided by the price.
  2. The rate of return on an investment, usually expressed as an annual percentage rate.
首席行政官 CEO This is the senior manager who is responsible for overseeing the activities of an entire company.
首席财务官 CFO This is the senior manager who is responsible for overseeing the financial activities of an entire company. This includes signing checks, monitoring cash flow, and financial planning.
首席营运官 COO This is the senior manager whose responsibility it is to manage the day-to-day operations of the company and then report this to the CEO.
首席行政官 Chief Executive Officer This is the senior manager who is responsible for overseeing the activities of an entire company.
首席财务官 Chief Financial Officer This is the senior manager who is responsible for overseeing the financial activities of an entire company. This includes signing checks, monitoring cash flow, and financial planning.
首席营运官 Chief Operating Officer This is the senior manager whose responsibility it is to manage the day-to-day operations of the company and then report this to the CEO.
首次公开上市 IPO The first sale of stock by a private company to the public. IPOs are often smaller, younger companies seeking capital to expand their business.
首期保证金 Initial Margin The percentage of the purchase price of securities that can be purchased on margin.
首次公开上市 Initial Public Offering (IPO) The first sale of stock by a private company to the public. IPOs are often smaller, younger companies seeking capital to expand their business.
首次公开上市锁定期、禁售期 IPO Lock-up A legally binding contract between the underwriters and insiders of the company undergoing an initial public offering (IPO). The contract prevents them from selling any shares of stock for a specified period of time.
寿司债券 Sushi Bond A Eurobond that is issued by a Japanese issuer and does not count against a Japanese institution's limits on the holdings of foreign securities.
受扶养人士 Dependent A person who relies on someone else for financial support. The taxpayer supporting the dependent is allowed to claim dependency exemptions.
售出清理 Sell-Out When a broker or investor buying stocks has failed to settle the trade in a timely matter and, consequently, the broker can forcibly sell the securities on the investors behalf.
授权股份 Authorized Stock The maximum number of shares that a corporation is legally permitted to issue under its articles of incorporation. This figure is usually listed in the capital accounts section of the balance sheet.
受益者 Beneficial Owner A person or firm that benefits from owning an asset even though they are not registered as a shareholder.
受益方 Beneficiary A person or entity named in a will or financial contract to be an inheritor of someone's property when the property owner dies.
受托人 Fiduciary A person legally appointed and authorized to hold assets in trust for another person. The fiduciary manages the assets for the benefit of the other person rather than for his/her own profits.
受损的资产 Impaired Asset An asset with a market value that is worth less than its book value.
受损的信贷 Impaired Credit The deterioration of a borrower's credit rating.
授权书 Power of Attorney Giving someone the ability to act on your behalf in specific instances
受监管投资公司 Regulated Investment Company (RIC) A mutual fund or real estate investment trust that is eligible to pass the taxes on capital gains, dividends, or interest payments onto the clients or individual investors.
受托人 Trustee An individual who holds or manages assets for the benefit of another.
赎回 Redemption The return of an investor's principal in a security, such as a stock, bond, or mutual fund.
数据探索 Data Mining A type of database application that looks for hidden patterns in large groups of data.
双重收费 Double Dipping For brokerage firms, when a broker puts commissioned products into a fee-based account. The broker makes money from both the client and the commission.
双谷经济衰退 Double Dip Recession When the gross domestic product (GDP) growth slides back to negative after a quarter or two of brief positive growth. In other words, a recession followed by a short-lived recovery, followed by another recession.
双重征税 Double Taxing A tax law that results in the same earnings being subjected to taxation twice. A company's income is taxed initially and then the shareholders and investors are taxed on the distributions they receive from the company.
双头垄断 Duopoly A situation in which two companies own all or nearly all of the market for a given type of product or service.
水平价差 Horizontal Spread An options strategy involving the simultaneous purchase and sale of two options of the same type, having the same strike price, but different expiration dates.
税后营运收入 After Tax Operating Income - ATOI A company's total operating income after taxes. Calculated by deducting taxes from total operating income.
税后利润率 After Tax Profit Margin The ratio calculated by taking net income after taxes and dividing it by net sales.
税后现金流 Cash Flow After Taxes A company's cash flow after taxes is derived by taking the net income and removing charges for taxes and depreciation.
税前盈利 EBT An indicator of a company's financial performance calculated as:
Revenue - Expenses (excluding tax)
税后净营运利润 Net Operating Profit After Tax (NOPAT) A company's potential cash earnings if its capitalization was unleveraged (that is, if it had no debt). NOPAT is frequently used in economic value added (EVA) calculations.
Calculated as:
NOPAT = operating income x (1 - Tax rate)
税务调整净营运利润 Net Operating Profit Less Adjusted Taxes (NOPLAT) Total operating profits for a firm with adjustments made for taxes.
税盾 Tax Shield The reduction in income taxes that results from taking an allowable deduction from taxable income.
私人银行 Private Banking Beyond just providing credit or managing investments, private banking addresses your entire financial situation. Services include everything from protecting and growing your assets in the present, to planning retirement and passing wealth on to future generations.
私人公司 Private Company A company whose ownership is private and, thus, do not need to meet the strict SEC filing requirements of public companies.
私人股本 Private Equity When equity capital is made available to companies or investors, but not quoted on a stock market. The funds raised through private equity can be used to develop new products and technologies, to expand working capital, to make acquisitions, or to strengthen a company抯 balance sheet.
私人投资公开股票  Private Investment, Public Equity (PIPE) This is when a private investment or mutual fund buys common stock for a company at a discount to the current market value per share.
私募 Private Placement Raising of capital via private rather than public placement. The result is the sale of securities to a relatively small number of investors.
速动资产 Quick Assets Assets that can be easily be converted into cash or are already in cash form. It is calculated as current assets minus inventories.
速动比率 Quick Ratio An indicator of a company's financial strength. It is calculated by subtracting inventories from current assets, then dividing by current liabilities. This is also known as the Acid Test.
酸性测试比率 Acid Test A stringent test that indicates if a firm has enough short-term assets to cover its immediate liabilities, without selling inventory.

(Cash+Accounts Receivable+
Short-term Investments)
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Current Liabilities
损益表 Income Statement Part of a company's financial statements summarizing revenues and expenses during a specific period of time. Also known as the profit and loss statement.
缩小规模 Downsize Reducing the size of a company by eliminating workers and/or divisions within the company.
所有出价 Any and All Bid A bid made to purchase all stock being offered at a specific price.
所得税 Income Tax A tax on any money earned during a fiscal year, usually filed on a yearly basis. All businesses except partnerships must file an annual income tax return. Partnerships file an information return.
锁定协议 Lock-up Agreement A legally binding contract between the underwriters and insiders of the company prohibits them from selling any shares of stock for a certain specified period of time.


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